This is the secret of the mythological understanding of historical time.

This is the secret of the mythological understanding of historical time.

It is consistent with the dogmas of faith: death as the crown of life and the door to immortality. "It is necessary to prepare a weapon in time against this enemy not for various reasons, because they are not real, but for a calm coordination of one’s will with the will of the Creator. Such peace of mind is prepared in advance, it grows quietly in the secret of the heart, strengthened by a sense of good done.

Realizing his vocation and the temporal purpose of awakening the spirit of the nation, Hryhoriy Savych Skovoroda fulfilled his mission with every word, every step, every thought. In his own life he canonized high moral principles: love of freedom, firmness of spirit, dignity, sincerity, kindness, desire for wisdom, reliability, love of neighbor. This confirmed the moral foundations of the new Ukrainian society. The creative heritage of the great philosopher has become an inexhaustible source of wisdom and life-giving inspiration for the Ukrainian people for many, many centuries. It is still relevant today. It will be relevant tomorrow. The limits to the spiritual perfection of man have not been determined.


The phenomenon of worldview in Ukrainian philosophy. Abstract

Philosophers of Ukraine have paid close attention to the analysis of the worldview and clarification of this concept, especially since the 1980s. The works of VI Shinkaruk, VP Ivanov, MV Popovich and others are well known. The main error in the interpretation of this phenomenon, which sometimes occurs in the literature, lies in the identification of worldview with knowledge

However, the connection of the worldview with knowledge does not mean their identity: if this were the case, it would not be difficult to inform a person or social group and without a spiritual crisis, without severe internal torment to form a worldview. This is an enlightening view, which is based on the idea that there are general laws of existence, known philosophies, and knowledge of these laws and constitutes a worldview, ie is a set of holistic ideas about the world and man’s place in this world.

However, the worldview is not only a set of knowledge about the world, it is rather a kind of synthesis of knowledge and various meanings of human comprehension, the projection of personal problems, in other words, it is not a higher process of learning, but internal work and self-acquisition. Absolutization of knowledge is a defect of the enlightening concept of man. But in ancient times it was known that omniscience does not teach the mind.

It is the stable presumption that it is possible to form a personality from the outside with the help of absolute knowledge that led to the emergence of repressive pedagogy with its monologue and imperative methods of education such as "if you don’t want – we will force ".

Not only the worldview is formed, but also the personality with its beliefs and life attitudes, and therefore the worldview can take place only where there is "self", ie self-acquisition, self-education, self-development, self-improvement, self-education, self-limitation.

The modern era is associated with the difficult search for new ways to build statehood and the formation of national culture. For philosophy, this means first of all overcoming dogmatism and renewing its problem field. But the update should not turn into a conjuncture. Some believe that all the philosophical literature of recent decades is false, and the truth is in new attitudes that completely deny the Marxist tradition.

The ability to turn 180 degrees without fractures and shocks means only one thing: there was no worldview, but there was a sum of knowledge that was pretended to be recognized in order to maintain a loyal position on the regime, but did not coincide with behavior …

We have a well-known situation of splitting an individual into a private and a public person. Thus, the term "worldview" introduced into Kant’s human lexicon should not be taken literally as a system of worldviews – a contemplative, enlightening interpretation – but as an active self-determination of a person in the world who seeks ways from idea to action.

The worldview from these positions is a system of principles and knowledge, ideals and values, hopes and beliefs, views on the meaning and purpose of life, which determine the activities of an individual or social subject, and are organically part of his actions and norms of thinking.

When there is a discrepancy between thought and action, social mimicry, conformism, and hypocrisy flourish, that is, a deep crisis of existing worldview values ​​begins. Then there is the problem of developing new values ​​and worldview. Without this, society can not function, because the worldview is a form of its social self-consciousness, through which the subject is aware of its social essence and evaluates its spiritual and practical activities.

Worldview is an integral spiritual formation that encourages practical action, a certain way of life and thought. In structural terms, it is common to distinguish such subsystems or levels as worldview, worldview and worldview.

At one time, the German philosopher K. Jaspers devoted to a special study of the psychology of worldviews, as the worldview of not only individuals but also social groups and even epochs in some cases tends to harmonious, optimistic, and in others – to gloomy- pessimistic, anxious-tragic perception of life. …

Emotional and intellectual feelings and understandings as components of human subjectivity are differently represented in different worldview systems and cause their diversity. In mythology, for example, worldview prevails over understanding, and in philosophy – vice versa. According to the way of their existence, the worldview is divided into group and individual, although no worldview system can exist outside the individual and without the individual. According to the degree and clarity of self-consciousness, the worldview is divided into life-practical, ie common sense, and theoretical, a kind of which is philosophy.

Common sense is engraved in aphorisms of life wisdom and in the maxims of the spiritual life of the people, and theoretical worldview – in logically ordered systems, which are based on a certain categorical apparatus and logical procedures of proofs and justifications. However, any worldview, regardless of how it is structured or classified, unites the presence of belief. This is the core and meaning of the worldview as such, because it is the belief that connects thought with action, embodies the idea in practice.

There are no convictions – there is no worldview, it is either not formed or devalued. Renunciation of beliefs or disappointment in them is always a personal tragedy, because belief is an idea that has passed through a person’s heart, experienced and suffered by him. As F. Dostoevsky noted in the preparatory materials for the novel "Teenager", feelings cannot be aroused by the mind, and one must first snatch from the heart the idea that has settled in it in the form of feelings, but this can be done only by cutting out the heart.

Beliefs, ideas, ideas, feelings, mediated by the experience of the individual, participate in the formation of life position. There can be no worldview without an ideal; the ideal needs faith in its embodiment; faith is inseparable from love, man and hopes for what he considers holy and dear. That is why the worldview is not only knowledge and awareness, it is also a life process, namely: spiritual and practical assimilation of the world, in which the world of real, the world of existing being is opposed by the world of due, world of ideals, goals and hopes, transcendent world of desired being.

We emphasize once again that the worldview is not just a generalized idea of ​​the world, but a form of social self-consciousness of man, the nodal categories of which are the concepts of "world" and "man". Through these concepts, the subject of worldview realizes its purpose in the world and forms life attitudes.

The worldview is inherently universal because it integrates knowledge and feelings into beliefs, as well as practical because it focuses on solving the most important problems of human existence, expresses the imperatives of human behavior and the meaning of human life. This is the functional purpose of the worldview.

Worldview – a constant companion of human life at any stage of society. The most studied historical forms of it are myth and religion. The first to conclude that the myth is a stage in the development of consciousness, which corresponds to a certain historical epoch, the French culturologist L. Levi-Bruhl. However, he relied on the fruitful opinion of the German philosopher F. Schelling about the myth as a product of folk art.

Continuing Schelling’s ideas, at the beginning of our century the German thinker E. Cassirer tried to comprehend the world "from within" in accordance with his own laws of development. Under the influence of these thinkers in the twentieth century, a significant amount of literature devoted to the study of mythological worldview.

The most notable were the works of D. Fraser and K. Levi-Strauss, and in the domestic tradition – OF Losev and a number of others. Mythological form of worldview is characterized by anthropomorphism, ie the identification of natural forces with human ones, their spiritualization. Therefore, the realization of the fact of the division of the world into the world of things and the world of anthropomorphic beings meant the beginning of the disintegration of the myth.

The personification of the forces of nature (symbolism) is also a late stage of myth, which is especially characteristic of ancient mythology. Myth is historically the first form of self-consciousness to separate from practice. Here are the origins of his anthropomorphism.

The mythological worldview is characterized by:

First, the awareness of the genus as a collective person, convinced of the existence of a common ancestor – the totem. Under the conditions of the society of that time, totem beliefs turned out to be extremely practical, due to the fact that they cemented individuals into ancestral integrity and, consequently, were a life force. In fact, this is the main purpose of the worldview in general. Secondly, the mythological worldview is largely turned to the past, because the totem ancestor was, moreover, was an ideal of activity. This is the secret of the mythological understanding of historical time. Formally, the future seems to be turned to the past, but in reality the retrospective ideal is the proper and coveted one that the tribal community aspires to. However, human life is not yet clearly divided into the present and the future. And this fact helps to understand the power of tradition, and as a consequence – the dominance of the cyclical model of historical time. Third, since the mythological worldview is anthropomorphic, the inevitable formation of an animistic picture of life, that is, the spiritualization of all things.

  • May 14, 2020
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